Доклады и выступления

На Фестивале Анастасия Крылова прочла лекцию «Письменности Индии», в которой, среди прочего, рассказала о феномене автохтонных письменностей языков мунда.


Евгения Ренковская и Анастасия Крылова провели на Фестивале популярные лекции по языкам сора и гутоб.

Анонс лекции «язык гутоб»: https://www.facebook.com/events/2727649587374327/permalink/2741231102682842/

Видеозапись лекции «язык сора»:  https://vk.com/wall-180511191_97

Также Анастасия Крылова провела лекцию «Письменности Индии», в которой речь идёт, в частности, об автохтонных письменностях языков мунда. Анонс: https://www.facebook.com/events/2727649587374327/permalink/2735604656578820/


с сообщением «शिक्षा में मातृभाषा: हिमालय की भाषा विविधता के संरक्षण का एक उपाय» (Mother tongue in education: a step towards preservation of language diversity of the Himalayas / Родной язык в образовании: шаг к сохранению языкового разнообразия Гималаев).

Тезисы доклада:

The term “language endangerment” describes the situation when the language transition between generations becomes limited. Today it is the case of many Himalayan languages that are considered endangered. Himalayan languages are mostly used in daily communication at home or within local communities. They have no written form and are not connected with school education. Both in India and Russia it is not infrequent to hear regretful remarks from minor language speakers about their children who don’t want to speak their language, as if their children’s personal choice was the sole reason. Referring to our field research expirience of minor languages of India and Russia we may conclude that regional language endagerment is connected with the rise of education provided in official language without any role of the regional language in it. Hindi is the main language of education in Uttarakand and Himachal Pradesh. Negative influence of Hindi-only school education on minor languages has some reasons:

* According to psychological studies primary school children learn to express their thoughts in regular verbal form, therefore their systematic thoughts and consciousness depend on the language of primary education.

* Speaking Himalayan languages is restricted by teachers, while the importance of Hindi is imposed on children.

* Parents start to speak Hindi with their children from pre-school age to avoid language problems at school, reducing local language use.

* Attitude towards Himalayan languages becomes negative because they are rarely used outside their home and village.

These days many people consider multilingual education to be necessary in a multilingual country like India. There are some sources to provide multilingual education included in the MLE program. This program is spreading mostly in the state of Odisha. After research on MLE program in Odisha we want to discuss its possibility in the Himalayan region. And our main focus will be on how the Himalayan languages should be used in education.

Презентация доклада:

MLE program

Тезисы доклада:

The interaction between language and religion in a sociolinguistic perspective has been attracting the attention of scholars for a long time. However, systematic research of the influence of religious practices on language processes in sociolinguistic context began as recently as in the beginning of the new millennium [Darquennes, Vandenbussche 2011: 3]. Essential works containing main theoretical theses in the area are [Omoniyi, Fishman 2006], [Sawyer 2001], [Spolsky 2004 и 2009], [Mukherjee 2013], etc.

Our research deals with the influence of religion on the state of preservation of the Sora language (South Munda: Odisha & Andhra Pradesh, India). Processes of modernization, Indo-Aryan and English languages dominance in Indian government institutions, schools, mass media and Internet, as well as a “low prestige” of Munda languages (in particular due to stereotypes of tribal “backwardness”) lead to language and cultural assimilation and language loss in younger generations. Bonda, Didayi and Gorum languages have been assigned a “severely endangered” status by UNESCO. Sora is the most widely spoken and well preserved among South Munda languages, still the number of its speakers is diminishing dramatically due to aforementioned trends. Modern works on South Munda languages mostly deal with lexical and grammatical description (some of them are [Biligiri 1965], [Zide 1976], [Starosta 1967 and 1976], [Anderson 2008]), but the sociolinguistic situation in the areas of distribution of these languages remains beyond the scholars’ scope of attention.

Sora people belong to five different religious communities. Historically, some of them preserve a tribal animistic tradition; others, as a result of Christian and Hindu proselytism, are Baptist, Catholic or Hindu. Besides that, there is a so-called “alphabet worshipper” (term introduced by [Vitebsky 2017]) community. The latter belong to a Neo-Animistic “Matar Banom” movement, worshipping a newly invented Sora language script as sacred. Every community establishes a specific sociolinguistic situation within itself.

Our research is based on field data collected by an expedition to Odisha, India (October-November 2017). The work was carried out in Serango, Barangsing, Samagaita (Baptists), Porida, Ollada (Catholics) villages of Gajapati district, Bagasala, Dombosara, Marichaguda, Engerba (both animists and alphabet worshippers) villages of Rayagada district and within the Hindu community of the town of Paralakhemundi. According to our results, language is best preserved by the Baptist and Mattar Banom movements. In Sora Baptist churches pastors are native speakers of Sora and conduct services in Sora (adding some Oriya). Visiting the church on Sunday is mandatory for all members of the community. The Bible and other religious texts have been translated into Sora and are in use everywhere, therefore religious tradition supports (sometimes even a secondary) adoption of the Sora language. Matar Banom believers worship the script invented specially for the Sora language, so language itself becomes sacred: they use only Sora in religious practices, have an ashram where children are taught in Sora, etc.

Other religious communities have other situations. Catholic priests are mostly Malayalam native speakers from Kerala. With varying levels of success, they study Oriya and sometimes Sora specifically to conduct services in Odisha. Services and confessions proceed in Oriya (with additions of Hindi and English). Though some religious texts have been translated into Sora, they are not in wide use. All these circumstances make a negative impact on the Sora language.

One of the main principles of the animistic tradition is mediumism, or possession (the deity/spirit/ancestor possesses a human’s body and talks to worshippers through the possessed). This kind of communication as well as traditional incantations is performed in Sora only. The language is thus preserved, but the problem is that newer generations leave religious traditions behind and become prone to language loss. Among modern Sora people, mostly animists and Hindus are vulnerable to language assimilation.


Anderson, Gregory D.S (ed). 2008. The Munda languages. Routledge Language Family Series 3.New York: Routledge.

Biligiri, H.S. 1965. “The Sora Verb: A Restricted Study”. Lingua 15:231-50

Darquennes J., & Vandenbussche W. (Eds.). 2011. Language and religion as a sociolinguistic field of study: some introductory notes. Sociolinguistica , 25, 1-11.

Mukherjee S. (Ed.). 2013. Reading language and linguistics together. IJSL. 220

Omoniyi T., Fishman J. A. (Eds.). 2006. Explorations in the sociology of language and religion. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Sawyer J. F.A., Simpson J.M.Y. (Eds.). 2001: Concise encyclopedia of language and religion. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Spolsky B. 2004: Language policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Spolsky B. 2009: Language management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Starosta S. 1967. Sora Syntax: A Generative Approach to a Munda Language. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Starosta, S. 1976. Case forms and case relations in Sora. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, (13), 1069-1107. 

Vitebsky P. 2017. Living Without the Dead: Loss and Redemption in a Jungle Cosmos. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. 

Zide, A. 1976. Nominal combining forms in Sora and Gorum. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, (13), 1259-1294.poster-red-cmyk

Тезисы доклада:

Языки мунда – древнейший языковой пласт Южной Азии. Они принадлежат к австроазиатским языкам и составляют их самую западную ветвь. Языки мунда распространены главным образом на востоке центральной и северной Индии, а также на территории Бангладеш, Непала и Бутана. Предположительно, носители протомунда мигрировали на полуостров Индостан с востока, позже полуостров был заселён носителями дравидийских и индоарийских языков, и языки мунда были вытеснены со значительной части своего ареала. Число языков мунда – около 20 идиомов.

Исследователи не сходятся во мнении относительно генеалогической классификации языков мунда. Разные варианты классификации на разных основаниях предлагали Н. Зайд, Ж. Диффлот, С. Бхаттачарья, Г. Андерсон и И. Пейрос. Классификация И. Пейроса основана на данных лексикостатистики, полученных при помощи обработки в программе Starling стословных списков Сводеша от восьми языков мунда: сантали, мундари, кхария, джуанг, сора, паренги, бонда и корку. Однако в последние годы неоднократно говорилось о важности проверки исходных данных для получения точных результатов лексикостатистики. Иными словами, следует тщательно подходить к сбору стословных и двухсотсловных списков. Попытка разработать списки контекстов для анкеты на стословный список была сделана в статье [Kassian, Starostin, Dybo, Chernov 2010]. Анкеты были успешно апробированы в ходе экспедиции в феврале 2016 г. в штат Орисса. Нами были собраны стословные списки Сводеша от носителей четырёх языков мунда. Список языка сора собирался от четырёх носителей, хо – от двух носителей, бонда и мундари – от одного носителя каждый. Списки собирались с учётом особенностей словоупотребления в разных контекстах, в качестве языка-посредника использовались английский, хинди и, по возможности, ория. Этимологические идентификации были проведены на основании работ [Пейрос 2004, Burrow and Emenau 1984, Pinnow 1959, Zide 1982, Turner 1962-1985, Bhattacharya 1966, Donegan and Stampe 2004]. Дерево построено стандартным способом в программе Starling.

Следует отметить, что полученные результаты в целом выглядят правдоподобно и подтверждают точку зрения И. Пейроса. Распад прото-мунда на северную и южную группы относится к первой половине второго тысячелетия до нашей эры. Чуть позже происходит разделение бонда и сора, а мундари и хо (не представленный у И. Пейроса язык группы кхервари) разделяются в середине первого тысячелетия нашей эры.

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